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1994 Brian S. Julin, University Of Massachusetts
FAQ: 06/13/04 - 07:53:31 Posted By: Dan

QUESTIONS

Subject: alt.hemp CANNABIS/MARIJUANA FAQ
Newsgroups: alt.hemp,alt.answers,news.answers
Organization: University_of_Massachusetts_at_Amherst_Cannabis_Reform_Coalition
Reply-To: verdant@twain.ucs.umass.edu
Followup-To: poster
Summary: This FAQ contains answers to frequently asked questions about marijuana

and industrial hemp legalization.
Keywords: hemp,marijuana,cannabis,law,legalization,environment
Approved: news-answers-request@MIT.Edu

Archive-name: drugs/hemp-marijuana
Version: 1.0



  -------------------------------------------------------
 Welcome to Frequently Asked Questions about Cannabis Hemp
  -------------------------------------------------------


This document contains straight answers to tough questions
about hemp and marijuana.  Every effort has been made to
ensure their accuracy, and sources, if not provided, are
available by request.  BE WARNED -- this text has changed
minds.  The author and contributers do not take
responsibility for any change in outlook, new ideas, or
re-evaluation of one's relationship with current political
parties which may result from allowing photons to travel
into your eyeballs, even when said photons originate from a
cathode ray tube, backlit LCD screen, microfiche reader or
illuminated sheet of paper on which this document is being
displayed.  Unless of course you feel like showering us
with fan mail and candy-grams.  In that case we'll take the
blame.





      Copyright (c)  1 9 9 4   by Brian S. Julin



              --------------------------

The following persons have contributed to this document at
some point in it's evolution: Laura Kriho
<cohip@darkstar.cygnus.com> (original list of questions),
Marc Anderson (fact finding), Paul L. Allen (LaTeX
formatting) ,plus some others who haven't said they want
their name put in.

This material is maintained and written by Brian S. Julin,
with help from several other individuals.  It is copyrighted
material.  The copyright is only there to prevent anyone
from editing or selling this material.  Feel free to
redistribute the material in any form as long as it is
unaltered in content, and no credit or money is taken for
the contents themselves.  Comments, questions, contributions
or ideas should be mailed to verdant@twain.ucs.umass.edu or
c/o Brian S. Julin at UMACRC, S.A.O.  Mailbox #2, Student
Union Building, UMASS, 01003

More information on the document is at the end -- wouldn't
want to bore you...   So without further ado:


                  ----------------------
                  C  O  N  T  E  N  T  S
                  ----------------------

Part1: What's all this fuss about hemp?

1a)  What is hemp?
1b)  What is cannabis?
1c)  Where did the word `marijuana' come from?
2a)  How can hemp be used as a food?
2b)  What are the benefits of hemp compared to other food crops?
2c)  How about soy?
     Is hemp competitive as a world source of protein?
3a)  How can hemp be used for cloth?
3b)  Why is it better than cotton?
4a)  How can hemp be used to make paper?
4b)  Why can't we just keep using trees?
5a)  How can hemp be used as a fuel?
5b)  Why is it better than petroleum?
6a)  How can hemp be used as a medicine?
6b)  What's wrong with all the prescription drugs we have?
7)   What other uses for hemp are there?

Part 2: So why aren't we using hemp, then?

1)   How and why was hemp made illegal?
2)   OK, so what the heck does all this other stuff have to do
     with hemp?
3)   Now wait, just hold on.  You expect me to believe that
     they wouldn't have thought to pass a better law, one that
     banned marijuana and allowed commercial hemp, instead of
     throwing the baby out with the bath water?
4)   Is there a lesson to be learned from all this?

Part 3: Does it?  Doesn't it?  Is it true that?

1)   Doesn't marijuana stay in your fat cells and keep you
     high for months?
2)   But ... isn't today's marijuana much more potent than it
     was in the Sixties?
     (Or, more often ... Marijuana is 10 times more powerful than
     it was in the Sixties!)
3a)  Doesn't Marijuana cause brain damage?
3b)  If it doesn't kill brain cells, how does it get you `high'?
4)   Don't people die from smoking pot?
5)   I forgot, does marijuana cause short-term memory impairment?
6a)  Is marijuana going to make my boyfriend go psycho?
6b)  Don't users of marijuana withdraw from society?
7)   Is it true that marijuana makes you lazy and unmotivated?
8)   Isn't marijuana a gateway drug?
     Doesn't it lead to use of harder drugs?
9a)  I don't want children (minors) to be able to smoke marijuana.
     How can I stop this?
9b)  Won't children be able to steal marijuana plants that
     people are growing?
10a) Hey, don't you know that marijuana drops testosterone
     levels in teenage boys causing [various physical and
     developmental problems]?
10b) Doesn't heavy marijuana use lower the sperm count in males?
10c) I heard marijuana use by teenage girls may impair hormone
     production, menstrual cycles, and fertility.  Is this true?
11)  Go away.
12)  Isn't smoking marijuana worse for you than smoking cigarettes?
13)  Don't children born to pot-smoking mothers suffer from
     ``Fetal Marijuana Syndrome?''
14)  Doesn't marijuana cause a lot of automobile accidents?
15)  Aren't you afraid everyone will get hooked?
16a) Is urine testing for marijuana use as a terms of
     employment a good idea?
     I want to make sure my business is run safely.
16b) Isn't all this worth the trouble, though, in order to
     reduce accident risks and health care costs?
17)  Wouldn't it be best to just lock the users all up?
18)  I heard that there are over 400 chemicals in marijuana...
     Wellllll...?
19)  Doesn't that stuff mess up your immune system and make
     it easier for you catch colds?

Part 4:  Why is it still illegal?

1)   Why is it STILL illegal?:
2)   What can I do to bring some sense into our marijuana laws?
3a)  Where can I get more information?
3b)  Umm, I'm computer illiterate, so that just went way over
     my head.  Are there any good books I could go get instead?
4)   Do you have any advice for people who want to organize
     their own group?

Part 5:  Sources by question number

Part 6:  About the alt.hemp FAQ.


                ----------------------
                P  A  R  T     O  N  E
                ----------------------

           WHAT'S ALL THIS FUSS ABOUT HEMP?


1a) What is hemp?

   For our purposes, hemp is the plant called `cannabis
   sativa.'  There are other plants that are called hemp, but
   cannabis hemp is the most useful of these plants.  In fact,
   `cannabis sativa' means `useful (sativa) hemp (cannabis)'.

   `Hemp' is any durable plant that has been used since
   pre-history for many purposes.  Fiber is the most well known
   product, and the word `hemp' can mean the rope or twine
   which is made from the hemp plant, as well as just the stalk
   of the plant which produced it.




1b) What is cannabis?

   Cannabis is the most durable of the hemp plants, and it
   produces the toughest cloth, called `canvass.'  (Canvass was
   widely used as sails in the early shipping industry, as it
   was the only cloth which would not rot on contact with sea
   spray.)  The cannabis plant also produces three other very
   important products which the other hemp plants do not (in
   usable form, that is): seed, pulp, and medicine.

   The pulp is used as fuel, and to make paper.  The seed is
   suitable for both human and animal foods.  The oil from the
   seed can be used in as a base for paints and varnishes.  The
   medicine is a tincture or admixture of the sticky resin in
   the blossoms and leaves of the hemp plant, and is used for a
   variety of purposes.




1c) Where did the word `marijuana' come from?

   The word `marijuana' is a Mexican slang term which became
   popular in the late 1930's in America, during a series of
   media and government programs which we now refer to as the
   `Reefer Madness Movement.'  It refers specifically to the
   medicine part of cannabis, which Mexican soldiers used to
   smoke.

   Today in the U.S., hemp (meaning the roots, stalk, and stems
   of the cannabis plant) is legal to possess.  No one can
   arrest you for wearing a hemp shirt, or using hemp paper.
   Marijuana (The flowers, buds, or leaves of the cannabis
   plant) is not legal to possess, and there are stiff fines
   and possible jail terms for having any marijuana in your
   possession.  The seeds are legal to possess and eat, but
   only if they are sterilized (will not grow to maturity.)

   Since it is not possible to grow the hemp plant without
   being in possession of marijuana, the United States does not
   produce any industrial hemp products, and must import them
   or, more often, substitute others.  (There is a way to grow
   hemp legally, but it involves filing an application with the
   Drug Enforcement Administration and the DEA very rarely ever
   gives its permission.)  This does not seem to have stopped
   people from producing and using marijuana, though.  In many
   of the United States, marijuana is the number one cash crop,
   mostly because it fetches a very high price on the black
   market.




2a) How can hemp be used as a food?

   Hemp seed is a highly nutritious source of protein and
   essential fatty oils.  Many populations have grown hemp for
   its seed -- most of them eat it as `gruel' which is a lot
   like oatmeal.  The leaves can be used as roughage, but not
   without slight psycho-active side-effects.  Hemp seeds do
   not contain any marijuana and they do not get you `high.'

   Hemp seed protein closely resembles protein as it is found
   in the human blood.  It is fantastically easy to digest, and
   many patients who have trouble digesting food are given hemp
   seed by their doctors.  Hemp seed was once called `edestine'
   and was used by scientists as the model for vegetable
   protein.

   Hemp seed oil provides the human body with essential fatty
   acids.  Hemp seed is the only seed which contains these oils
   with almost no saturated fat.  As a supplement to the diet,
   these oils can reduce the risk of heart disease.  It is
   because of these oils that birds will live much longer if
   they eat hemp seed.

   With hemp seed, a vegan or vegetarian can survive and eat
   virtually no saturated fats.  One handful of hemp seed per
   day will supply adequate protein and essential oils for an
   adult.




2b) What are the benefits of hemp compared to other food crops?

   Hemp requires little fertilizer, and grows well almost
   everywhere.  It also resists pests, so it uses little
   pesticides.  Hemp puts down deep roots, which is good for
   the soil, and when the leaves drop off the hemp plant,
   minerals and nitrogen are returned to the soil.  Hemp has
   been grown on the same soil for twenty years in a row
   without any noticeable depletion of the soil.

   Using less fertilizer and agricultural chemicals is good for
   two reasons.  First, it costs less and requires less effort.
   Second, many agricultural chemicals are dangerous and
   contaminate the environment -- the less we have to use, the
   better.




2c) How about soy?
   Is hemp competitive as a world source of protein?

   Hemp does not produce quite as much protein as soy, but
   hemp seed protein is of a higher quality than soy.
   Agricultural considerations may make hemp the food crop of
   the future.  In addition to the fact that hemp is an easy
   crop to grow, it also resists UV-B light, which is a kind of
   sunlight blocked by the ozone layer.  Soy beans do not take
   UV-B light very well.  If the ozone layer were to deplete by
   16%, which by some estimates is very possible, soy
   production would fall by 25-30%.

   We may have to grow hemp or starve -- and it won't be the
   first time that this has happened.  Hemp has been used to
   `bail out' many populations in time of famine.
   Unfortunately, because of various political factors,
   starving people in today's underdeveloped countries are not
   taking advantage of this crop.  In some places, this is
   because government officials would call it `marijuana' and
   pull up the crop.  In other countries, it is because the
   farmers are busy growing coca and poppies to produce cocaine
   and heroin for the local Drug Lord.  This is truly a sad
   state of affairs.  Hopefully someday the Peace Corps will be
   able to teach modern hemp seed farming techniques and end
   the world's protein shortage.





3a) How can hemp be used for cloth?

   The stalk of the hemp plant has two parts, called the
   bast and the hurd.  The fiber (bast) of the hemp plant can
   be woven into almost any kind of cloth.  It is very durable.
   In fact, the first Levi's blue jeans were made out of hemp
   for just this reason.  Compared to all the other natural
   fibers available, hemp is more suitable for a large number
   of applications.

   Here is how hemp is harvested for fiber: A field of closely
   spaced hemp is allowed to grow until the leaves fall off.
   The hemp is then cut down and it lies in the field for some
   time washed by the rain.  It is turned over once to expose
   both sides of the stalk evenly.  During this time, the hurd
   softens up and many minerals are returned to the soil.  This
   is called `retting,' and after this step is complete, the
   stalks are brought to a machine which separates the bast and
   the hurd.  We are lucky to have machines today -- men used
   to do this last part by hand with hours of back-breaking
   labor.





3b) Why is it better than cotton?

   The cloth that hemp makes may be a little less soft than
   cotton, (though there are also special kinds of hemp, or
   ways to grow or treat hemp, that can produce a soft cloth)
   but it is much stronger and longer lasting. (It does not
   stretch out.)  Environmentally, hemp is a better crop to
   grow than cotton, especially the way cotton is grown
   nowadays.  In the United States, the cotton crop uses half
   of the total pesticides.  (Yes, you heard right, one half of
   the pesticides used in the entire U.S. are used on cotton.)
   Cotton is a soil damaging crop and needs a lot of
   fertilizer.




4a) How can hemp be used to make paper?

   Both the fiber (bast) and pulp (hurd) of the hemp plant
   can be used to make paper.  Fiber paper was the first kind
   of paper, and the first batch was made out of hemp in
   ancient China.  Fiber paper is thin, tough, brittle, and a
   bit rough.  Pulp paper is not as strong as fiber paper, but
   it is easier to make, softer, thicker, and preferable for
   most everyday purposes.  The paper we use most today is a
   `chemical pulp' paper made from trees.  Hemp pulp paper can
   be made without chemicals from the hemp hurd.  Most hemp
   paper made today uses the entire hemp stalk, bast and hurd.
   High-strength fiber paper can be made from the hemp baste,
   also without chemicals.

   The problem with today's paper is that so many chemicals are
   used to make it.  High strength acids are needed to make
   quality (smooth, strong, and white) paper out of trees.
   These acids produce chemicals which are very dangerous to
   the environment.  Paper companies do their best to clean
   these chemicals up (we hope.)  Hemp offers us an opportunity
   to make affordable and environmentally safe paper for all of
   our needs, since it does not need much chemical treatment.
   It is up to consumers, though, to make the right choice --
   these dangerous chemicals can also be used on hemp to make a
   slightly more attractive product.  Instead of buying the
   whiter, brighter role of toilet paper, we will need to think
   about what we are doing to the planet.

   Because of the chemicals in today's paper, it will turn
   yellow and fall apart as acids eat away at the pulp.  This
   takes several decades, but because of this publishers,
   libraries and archives have to order specially processed
   acid free paper, which is much more expensive, in order to
   keep records.  Paper made naturally from hemp is acid free
   and will last for centuries.




4b) Why can't we just keep using trees?

   The chemicals used to make wood chemical pulp paper today
   could cause us a lot of trouble tomorrow.  Environmentalists
   have long been concerned about the effects of dioxin and
   other compounds on wildlife and even people.  Beyond the
   chemical pollution, there are agricultural reasons why we
   should use cannabis hemp instead.  When trees are harvested,
   minerals are taken with them.  Hemp is much less damaging to
   the land where it is grown because it leaves these minerals
   behind.

   A simpler answer to the above question is:

   Because we are running out!  It was once said that a
   squirrel could climb from New England to the banks of the
   Mississippi River without touching the ground once.  The
   European settler's appetite for firewood and farmland put an
   end to this.  When the first wood paper became a huge
   industry, the United States Department of Agriculture began
   to worry about the `tree supply.'  That is why they went in
   search of plant pulp to replace wood.  Today some
   `conservatives' argue that there are more forests now than
   there ever were.  This is neither true, realistic nor
   conservative: these statistics do not reflect the real
   world.  Once trees have been removed from a plot of land, it
   takes many decades before biological diversity and natural
   cycles return to the forest, and commercial tree farms
   simply do not count as forest -- they are farm land.

   As just mentioned, many plant fibers were investigated by
   the USDA -- some, like kenaf, were even better suited than
   cannabis hemp for making some qualities of paper, but hemp
   had one huge advantage: robust vitality.  Hemp generates
   immense amounts of plant matter in a three month growing
   season.  When it came down to producing the deluge of paper
   used by Americans, only hemp could compete with trees.  In
   fact, according to the 1916 calculations of the USDA, one
   acre of hemp would replace an entire four acres of forest.
   And, at the same time, this acre would be producing textiles
   and rope.

   Today, only 4% of America's old-growth forest remains
   standing -- and there is talk about building roads into that
   for logging purposes!  Will our policy makers realize in
   time how easy it would be to save them?




5a) How can hemp be used as a fuel?

   The pulp (hurd) of the hemp plant can be burned as is or
   processed into charcoal, methanol, methane, or gasoline.
   The process for doing this is called destructive
   distillation, or `pyrolysis.'  Fuels made out of plants like
   this are called `biomass' fuels.  This charcoal may be
   burned in today's coal-powered electric generators.
   Methanol makes a good automobile fuel, in fact it is used in
   professional automobile races.  It may someday replace
   gasoline.

   Hemp may also be used to produce ethanol (grain alcohol.)
   The United States government has developed a way to make
   this automobile fuel additive from cellulosic biomass.  Hemp
   is an excellent source of high quality cellulosic biomass.
   One other way to use hemp as fuel is to use the oil from the
   hemp seed -- some diesel engines can run on pure pressed
   hemp seed oil.  However, the oil is more useful for other
   purposes, even if we could produce and press enough hemp
   seed to power many millions of cars.




5b) Why is it better than petroleum?

   Biomass fuels are clean and virtually free from metals
   and sulfur, so they do not cause nearly as much air
   pollution as fossil fuels.  Even more importantly, burning
   biomass fuels does not increase the total amount of carbon
   dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere.  When petroleum products
   are burned, carbon that has been stored underground for
   millions of years is added to the air; this may contribute
   to global warming through the `Greenhouse Effect', (a
   popular theory which says that certain gases will act like a
   wool blanket over the entire Earth, preventing heat from
   escaping into space.)  In order to make biomass fuels, this
   carbon dioxide has to be taken out of the air to begin with
   -- when they are burned it is just being put back where it
   started.

   Another advantage over fossil fuels is that biomass fuels
   can be made right here in the United States, instead of
   buying them from other countries.  Instead of paying oil
   drillers, super-tanker captains, and soldiers to get our
   fuel to us, we could pay local farmers and delivery drivers
   instead.  Of course, it is possible to chop down trees and
   use them as biomass.  This would not be as beneficial to the
   environment as using hemp, especially since trees that are
   cut down for burning are `whole tree harvested.'  This means
   the entire tree is ripped up and burned, not just the wood.
   Since most of the minerals which trees use are in the
   leaves, this practice could ruin the soil where the trees
   are grown.  In several places in the United States, power
   companies are starting to do this -- burning the trees in
   order to produce electricity, because that is cheaper than
   using coal.  They should be using hemp, like researchers in
   Australia started doing a few years ago.  (Besides, hemp
   provides a higher quality and quantity of biomass than trees
   do.)





6a) How can hemp be used as a medicine?

   Marijuana has thousands of possible uses in medicine.
   Marijuana (actually cannabis extract) was available as a
   medicine legally in this country until 1937, and was sold as
   a nerve tonic -- but mankind has been using cannabis
   medicines much longer than that.  Marijuana appears in
   almost every known book of medicine written by ancient
   scholars and wise men.  It is usually ranked among the top
   medicines, called `panaceas', a word which means `cure-all'.
   The list of diseases which cannabis can be used for
   includes: multiple sclerosis, cancer treatment, AIDS (and
   AIDS treatment), glaucoma, depression, epilepsy, migraine
   headaches, asthma, pruritis, sclerodoma, severe pain, and
   dystonia.  This list does not even consider the other
   medicines which can be made out of marijuana -- these are
   just some of the illnesses for which people smoke or eat
   whole marijuana today.

   There are over 60 chemicals in marijuana which may have
   medical uses.  It is relatively easy to extract these into
   food or beverage, or into some sort of lotion, using butter,
   fat, oil, or alcohol.  One chemical, cannabinol, may be
   useful to help people who cannot sleep.  Another is taken
   from premature buds and is called cannabidiolic acid.  It is
   a powerful disinfectant.  Marijuana dissolved in rubbing
   alcohol helps people with the skin disease herpes control
   their sores, and a salve like this was one of the earliest
   medical uses for cannabis.  The leaves were once used in
   bandages and a relaxing non-psychoactive herbal tea can be
   made from small cannabis stems.

   The most well known use of marijuana today is to control
   nausea and vomiting.  One of the most important things when
   treating cancer with chemotherapy or when treating AIDS with
   AZT or Foscavir, being able to eat well, makes the
   difference between life or death.  Patients have found
   marijuana to be extremely effective in fighting nausea; in
   fact so many patients use it for this purpose even though it
   is illegal that they have formed `buyers clubs' to help them
   find a steady supply.  In California, some city governments
   have decided to look the other way and allow these clubs to
   operate openly.

   Marijuana is also useful for fighting two other very serious
   and wide-spread disabilities.  Glaucoma is the second
   leading cause of blindness, caused by uncontrollable eye
   pressure.  Marijuana can control the eye pressure and keep
   glaucoma from causing blindness.  Multiple Sclerosis is a
   disease where the body's immune system attacks nerve cells.
   Spasms and many other problems result from this.  Marijuana
   not only helps stop these spasms, but it may also keep
   multiple sclerosis from getting worse.





6b) What's wrong with all the prescription drugs we have?

   They cost money and are hard to make.  In many cases,
   they do not work as well, either.  Some prescription drugs
   which marijuana can replace have very bad, even downright
   dangerous, side-effects.  Cannabis medicines are cheap,
   safe, and easy to make.

   Many people think that the drug dronabinol should be used
   instead of marijuana.  Dronabinol is an exact imitation of
   one of the chemicals found in marijuana, and it may actually
   work on a lot of the above diseases, but there are some big
   problems with dronabinol, and most patients who have used
   both dronabinol and marijuana say that marijuana works
   better.

   The first problem with Dronabinol is that it is even harder
   to get than marijuana.  Many doctors do not like to
   prescribe dronabinol, and many drug stores do not want to
   supply it, because a lot of paperwork has to be filed with
   the Drug Enforcement Administration.  Secondly, dronabinol
   comes in pills which are virtually useless to anyone who is
   throwing up, and it is hard to take just the right amount of
   dronabinol since it cannot be smoked.  Finally, because
   dronabinol is only one of the many chemicals in cannabis, it
   just does not work for some diseases.  Many patients do not
   like the effects of dronabinol because it does not contain
   some of the more calming chemicals which are present in
   marijuana.




7) What other uses for hemp are there?

   One of the newest uses of hemp is in construction
   materials.  Hemp can be used in the manufacture of `press
   board' or `composite board.'  This involves gluing fibrous
   hemp stalks together under pressure to produce a board which
   is many times more elastic and durable than hardwood.
   Because hemp produces a long, tough fiber it is the perfect
   source for press-board.  Another interesting application of
   hemp in industry is making plastic.  Many plastics can be
   made from the high-cellulose hemp hurd.  Hemp seed oil has a
   multitude of uses in products such as varnishes and
   lubricants.

   Using hemp to build is by no means a new idea.  French
   archeologists have discovered bridges built with a process
   that mineralizes hemp stalks into a long-lasting cement.
   The process involves no synthetic chemicals and produces a
   material which works as a filler in building construction.
   Called Isochanvre, it is gaining popularity in France.
   Isochanvre can be used as drywall, insulates against heat
   and noise, and is very long lasting.

   `Bio-plastics' are not a new idea, either -- way back in the
   1930's Henry Ford had already made a whole car body out of
   them -- but the processes for making them do need more
   research and development.  Bio-plastics can be made without
   much pollution.  Unfortunately, companies are not likely to
   explore bio-plastics if they have to either import the raw
   materials or break the law.  (Not to mention compete with
   the already established petrochemical products.)



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                   P  A  R  T      T  W  O
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             WELL WHY AREN'T WE USING HEMP, THEN?


1) How and why was hemp made illegal?

   Tough question!  In order to explain why hemp, the most
   useful plant known to mankind, became illegal, we have to
   understand the reasons why marijuana, the drug, became
   illegal.  In fact, it helps to go way back to the beginning
   of the century and talk about two other drugs, opium (the
   grandfather of heroin) and cocaine.

   Opium, a very addictive drug (but relatively harmless by
   today's standards) was once widely used by the Chinese.  The
   reasons for this are a whole other story, but suffice to say
   that when Chinese started to immigrate to the United States,
   they brought opium with them.  Chinese workers used opium to
   induce a trance-like state which helped make boring,
   repetitive tasks more interesting.  It also numbs the mind
   to pain and exhaustion.  By using opium, the Chinese were
   able to pull very long hours in the sweat shops of the
   Industrial Revolution.  During this period of time, there
   was no such thing as fair wages, and the only way a worker
   could make a living was to produce as much as humanly
   possible.

   Since they were such good workers, the Chinese held a lot of
   jobs in the highly competitive industrial work-place.  Even
   before the Great Depression, when millions of jobs
   disappeared overnight, the White Americans began to resent
   this, and Chinese became hated among the White working
   class.  Even more than today, White Americans had a very big
   political advantage over the Chinese -- they spoke English
   and had a few relatives in the government, so it was easy
   for them to come up with a plan to force Chinese immigrants
   to leave the country (or at least keep them from inviting
   all their relatives to come and live in America.)  This plan
   depended on stirring up racist feelings, and one of the
   easiest things to focus these feelings on was the foreign
   and mysterious practice of using opium.

   We can see this pattern again with cocaine, except with
   cocaine it was Black Americans who were the target.  Cocaine
   probably was not especially useful in the work-place, but
   the strategy against Chinese immigrants (picking on their
   drug of choice) had been so successful that it was used
   again.  In the case of Blacks, though, the racist feelings
   ran deeper, and the main thrust of the propaganda campaign
   was to control the Black community and keep Blacks from
   becoming successful.  Articles appeared in newspapers which
   blamed cocaine for violent crime by Blacks.  Black Americans
   were painted as savage, uncontrollable beasts when under the
   influence of cocaine -- it was said to make a single Black
   man as strong as four or five police officers.  (sound
   familiar?)  By capitalizing on racist sentiments, a powerful
   political lobby banned opium and then cocaine.

   Marijuana was next.  It was well known that the Mexican
   soldiers who fought America during the war with Spain smoked
   marijuana.  Poncho Villa, A Mexican general, was considered
   a nemesis for the behavior of his troops, who were known to
   be especially rowdy.  They were also known to be heavy
   marijuana smokers, as the original lyrics to the song `la
   cucaracha' show.  (The song was originally about a Mexican
   soldier who refused to march until he was provided with some
   marijuana.)

   After the war had ended and Mexicans had begun to immigrate
   into the South Eastern United States, there were relatively
   few race problems.  There were plenty of jobs in agriculture
   and industry and Mexicans were willing to work cheap.  Once
   the depression hit and jobs became scarce, however, Mexicans
   suddenly became a public nuisance.  It was said by
   politicians (who were trying to please the White working
   class) that Mexicans were responsible for a violent crime
   wave.  Police statistics showed nothing of the sort -- in
   fact Mexicans were involved in less crime than Whites.
   Marijuana, of course, got the blame for this phony outbreak
   of crime and health problems, and so many of these states
   made laws against using cannabis.  (In the Northern states,
   marijuana was also associated with Black jazz musicians.)

   Here is where things start to get complicated.  Put aside,
   for a moment, all the above, because there are a few other
   things involved in this twisted tale.  At the beginning of
   the Great Depression, there was a very popular movement
   called Prohibition, which made alcohol illegal.  This was
   motivated mainly by a Puritan religious ethic left over from
   the first European settlers.  Today we have movies and
   television shows such as the ``Untouchables'' which tell us
   what it was like to live during this period.  Since it is
   perhaps the world's most popular drug, alcohol prohibition
   spawned a huge `black market' where illegal alcohol was
   smuggled and traded at extremely high prices.  Crime got
   out-of-hand as criminals fought with each other over who
   could sell alcohol where.  Organized crime became an
   American institution, and hard liquor, which was easy to
   smuggle, took the place of beer and wine.

   In order to combat the crime wave, a large police force was
   formed.  The number of police grew rapidly until the end of
   Prohibition when the government decided that the best way to
   deal with the situation was to just give up and allow people
   to use alcohol legally.  Under Prohibition the American
   government had essentially (and unwittingly) provided the
   military back-up for the take-over of the alcohol business
   by armed thugs.  Even today, the Mob still controls liquor
   sales in many areas.  After Prohibition the United States
   was left with nothing to show but a decade of political
   turmoil -- and a lot of unemployed police officers.

   During Prohibition, being a police officer was a very nice
   thing -- you got a relatively decent salary, respect,
   partial immunity to the law, and the opportunity to take
   bribes (if you were that sort of person.)  Many of these
   officers were not about to let this life-style slip away.
   Incidentally, it was about this time when the Federal Bureau
   of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs was reformed, and a man
   named Harry J. Anslinger was appointed as its head.
   (Anslinger was appointed by his uncle-in-law, Andrew Mellon,
   who was the Secretary of the United States Treasury.)
   Anslinger campaigned tirelessly for funding in order to hire
   a large force of narcotics officers.  After retiring,
   Anslinger once mused that the FBNDD was a place where young
   men were given a license to steal and rape.

   The FBNDD is the organization which preceded what we now
   call the DEA, and was responsible for enforcing the new
   Federal drug laws against heroin, opium, and cocaine.  One
   of Anslinger's biggest concerns as head of the FBNDD was
   getting uniform drug laws passed in all States and the
   Federal legislature.  (Anslinger also had a personal dislike
   of jazz music and the Black musicians who made it.  He hated
   them so much that he spent years tracking each of them and
   dreamed of arresting them all in one huge, cross-country
   sweep.)  Anslinger frequented parent's and teacher's
   meetings giving scary speeches about the dangers of
   marijuana, and this period of time became known as Reefer
   Madness.  (The name comes from the title of a silly movie
   produced by a public health group.)





2) OK, so what the heck does all this other stuff have to do
  with hemp?

   To make a long story short, during the first decades of this
   century, opium was made illegal to kick out the Chinese
   immigrants who had flooded the work-force.  Cocaine was made
   illegal to repress and control the Black community.
   And, marijuana was made illegal in order to control Mexicans
   in the Southeast (and Blacks.)  All these laws were based
   mainly on emotional racism, without much else to back them
   up -- you can easily tell this by reading the hearings held
   in state legislatures.  Also at this time, the end of
   Prohibition left us with a large force of unemployed police
   officers, who looked for work enforcing the new drug laws.
   Consequently, these same police officers needed to convince
   the country that their jobs were important.  They did so by
   scaring parents about the dangers of drugs.  All this set
   the stage for a law passed in the Federal legislature which
   put a prohibitive tax on marijuana.  This is what killed the
   hemp industry in 1937, since it made business in hemp
   impossible.

   Before the 1937 Marijuana Tax Act, the state of Kentucky was
   the center of a relatively large American hemp industry
   which produced cloth and tow (rope for use in shipping.)
   The industry would have been larger, but hemp had one major
   disadvantage: processing it required a lot of work.  Men had
   to `brake' hemp stalks in order to separate the fiber from
   the woody core.  This was done on a small machine called a
   hand-brake, and it was a job fit for Hercules.  It was not
   until the 1930's that machines to do this became widely
   available.

   Today we use paper made by a process called `chemical
   pulping'.  Before this, trees were processed by `mechanical
   pulping' instead, which was much more expensive.  At about
   the same time as machines to brake hemp appeared, the idea
   of using hemp hurds for making paper and plastic was
   proposed.  Hemp hurds were normally considered to be a
   worthless waste product that was thrown away after it was
   stripped of fiber.  New research showed that these hurds
   could be used instead of wood in mechanical pulping, and
   that this would drastically reduce the cost of making paper.
   Popular Mechanics Magazine predicted that hemp would rise to
   become the number one crop in America.  In fact, the 1937
   Marijuana Tax Act was so unexpected that Popular Mechanics
   had already gone to press with a cover story about hemp,
   published in 1938 just two months after the Tax Act took
   effect.


3) Now wait, just hold on.  You expect me to believe that
  they wouldn't have thought to pass a better law, one that
  banned marijuana and allowed commercial hemp, instead of
  throwing the baby out with the bath water?

   There's more.  `Chemical pulping' paper was invented at
   about this time by Dupont Chemicals, as part of a
   multi-million dollar deal with a timber holding company and
   newspaper chain owned by William Randolph Hearst.  This deal
   would provide the Hearst with a source of very cheap paper,
   and he would go on to be known as the tycoon of `yellow
   journalism' (so named because the new paper would turn
   yellow very quickly as it got older.)  Hearst knew that he
   could drive other papers out of competition with this new
   advantage.  Hemp paper threatened to ruin this whole plan.
   It had to be stopped, and the Marijuana Tax Act of 1937 was
   the way they did it.  As a drug law, the Tax Act really was
   not a very big step -- it did not really accomplish much at
   all and many historians have caught themselves wondering why
   the bill was even written.  Big business interests took
   advantage of the political climate of racism and anti-drug
   rhetoric to close the free market to hemp products, and
   _that_, my friend, is how hemp became illegal.

   (Whew!)

   For the 1930's, this business venture was one very large
   transaction; it included other timber companies and a few
   railroads.  Dupont's entire deal was backed by a banker
   named Andrew Mellon.  Don't look up!  That's the same Andrew
   Mellon who appointed his nephew-in-law Harry Anslinger to
   head up the FBNDD in 1931.  The Marijuana Tax Act was passed
   in a very unorthodox way, and nobody who would have objected
   was informed about the bill.  The American Medical
   Association found out about the bill only two days before
   the hearings, and sent a representative to object to the
   banning of cannabis medicines.  A hemp bird seed salesman
   also showed up and complained.  However, the bill was
   passed, partially due to the testimony of Harry J.
   Anslinger.

   Not that Americans would have protested against this bill,
   even if they had known it existed most Americans did not
   know that cannabis hemp and marijuana is the same thing.
   The separate word `marijuana' was one of the reasons for
   this.  Nobody would associate the evil weed from Mexico with
   the stuff they tied their shoes with.  Also, this was the
   time when synthetic fabrics were the latest fad -- nobody
   was interested in natural fibers any more.  To top this all
   off the word `hemp' was often wrongly used to refer to other
   natural fabrics, specifically jute.

   The ignorance of hemp continues today, but it is even more
   scary.  During the 1970's (Reefer Madness II) all mention of
   the word `hemp' was removed from high school text books here
   in the United States.  So much for free speech!  When Jack
   Herer, the world's most beloved hemp activist, asked a
   curator at the Smithsonian Museum why this word had been
   removed from all their exhibits, the answer he got was
   astounding: ``Children do not need to know about hemp
   anymore.  It confuses them.''  Jack Herer went on to uncover
   a film made by the United States government, a film which
   the government did not want to admit existed.  The film
   ``Hemp For Victory'' details how the United States
   government bypassed the Tax Act during World War II, when
   they needed hemp for the War Effort, and ran a large
   hemp-growing project in Kentucky and California.  (Bravo,
   Jack!)


4) Is there a lesson to be learned from all this?

   Several.  The first is that hate does not pay.  It is
   ironic that the racism of the American people would end up
   hurting them this way -- a sort of divine justice if you
   will.  Because Americans were blinded by fear, hatred, and
   intolerance of other races, they allowed a prosperous future
   to slip between their fingers.  Another thing this whole
   history tells us is that Americans need to take Democracy
   more seriously.  If they had devoted more of their time to
   informing themselves about the world around them, they would
   have known what the real issues were.  Instead they read the
   tabloids -- look where that has gotten us.  Finally, now
   that we have put marijuana prohibition into historical
   context, we can see clearly that it had nothing to do with
   public safety, or national security, or what have you.  By
   all rights, marijuana should not have been made illegal in
   the first place.  If today prohibition still has no rational
   basis to stand on, then let us repeal it.

   One point which bears emphasizing is this: the laws which
   are passed in this country may not mean what they say on
   paper.  Historically the United States has a long record of
   passing laws with ulterior motives.  Even when there is no
   ulterior motive, though, passing laws which are not specific
   enough leads to abuse.  Most of our tough drug laws are like
   this -- enacted to fight drug kingpins, but enforced against
   casual drug users and small-time drug dealers.  In fact,
   most of these laws never even get used against a real drug
   kingpin, and the first people prosecuted under the statutes
   are not what the legislators had in mind.  If this upsets
   you, you should pay more attention to what goes on in your
   legislature.


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                  P  A  R  T      T  H  R  E  E
                  -----------------------------

-----------------------------------------------------------------------
The next question would normally be ``Why is it _still_ not
legal,'' but since we have uncovered an understanding of the
history, it is time to take a little detour.  Politicians
love to tell us that marijuana must remain illegal for our
own good.  In the next section we will examine some of the
so-called facts about marijuana so that you can decide for
yourselves whether you agree or not.  Is marijuana
prohibition there to protect the people, or is it just the
result of decades of refusal to admit our
mistakes?
-----------------------------------------------------------------------



            DOES IT?  DOESN'T IT?  IS IT TRUE THAT?




1) Doesn't marijuana stay in your fat cells and keep you
  high for months?

   No.  The part of marijuana that gets you high is called
   `Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol.'  Most people just call this
   THC, but this is confusing: your body will change
   Delta-9-THC into more inert molecules known as
   `metabolites,' which don't get you high.  Unfortunately,
   these chemicals also have the word `tetrahydrocannabinol' in
   them and they are also called THC -- so many people think
   that the metabolites get you high.  Anti-drug pamphlets say
   that THC gets stored in your fat cells and then leaks out
   later like one of those `time release capsules' advertised
   on television.  They say it can keep you high all day or
   even longer.  This is not true, marijuana only keeps you
   high for a few hours, and it is not right to think that a
   person who fails a drug test is always high on drugs,
   either.

   Two of these metabolites are called
   `11-hydroxy-tetrahydrocannabinol' and
   `11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol' but we will
   call them 11-OH-THC and 11-nor instead.  These are the
   chemicals which stay in your fatty cells.  There is almost
   no Delta-9-THC left over a few hours after smoking
   marijuana, and scientific studies which measure the effects
   of marijuana agree with this fact.





2) But ... isn't today's marijuana much more potent than it
  was in the Sixties?
  (Or, more often ... Marijuana is 10 times more powerful than
  it was in the Sixties!)

   GOOD!  Actually, this is not true, but if it were, it
   would mean that marijuana is safer to smoke today than it
   was in the Sixties.  (More potent cannabis means less
   smoking means less lung damage.)  People who use this
   statistic just plain do not know what they are talking
   about.  Sometimes they will even claim that marijuana is now
   twenty to thirty times stronger, which is physically
   impossible because it would have to be *over* 100%
   Delta-9-THC.  The truth is, marijuana has not really changed
   potency all that much, if at all, in the last several
   hundred years.  Growing potent cannabis is an ancient art
   which has not improved in centuries, despite all our modern
   technology.  Before marijuana was even made illegal, drug
   stores sold tinctures of cannabis which were over 40% THC.

   Even so, the point is moot because marijuana smokers engage
   in something called `auto-titration.'  This basically means
   smoking until they are satisfied and then stopping, so it
   does not really matter if the marijuana is more potent
   because they will smoke less of it.  Marijuana is not like
   pre-moistened towelettes or snow-cones.  There is nothing
   forcing marijuana smokers to smoke an entire joint.

   Experienced marijuana users are accustomed to smoking
   marijuana from many different suppliers, and they know that
   if they smoke a whole joint of very potent bud they will get
   `TOO STONED'.  Since being `too stoned' is a rather
   unpleasant experience, smokers quickly learn to take their
   time and `test the waters' when they do not know how strong
   their marijuana is.





3a) Doesn't Marijuana cause brain damage?

   The short answer: No.

   The long answer: The reason why you ask this is because you
   probably heard or read somewhere that marijuana damages
   brain cells, or makes you stupid.  These claims are untrue.

   The first one -- marijuana kills brain cells -- is based on
   research done during the second Reefer Madness Movement.  A
   study attempted to show that marijuana smoking damaged brain
   structures in monkeys.  However, the study was poorly
   performed and it was severely criticized by a medical review
   board.  Studies done afterwards failed to show any brain
   damage, in fact a very recent study on Rhesus monkeys used
   technology so sensitive that scientists could actually see
   the effect of learning on brain cells, and it found no
   damage.

   But this was Reefer Madness II, and the prohibitionists were
   looking around for anything they could find to keep the
   marijuana legalization movement in check, so this study was
   widely used in anti-marijuana propaganda.  It was recanted
   later.

   (To this day, the radical anti-drug groups, like P.R.I.D.E.
   and Dr.  Gabriel Nahas, still use it -- In fact, America's
   most popular drug education program, Drug Abuse Resistance
   Education, claims that marijuana ``can impair memory
   perception & judgement by destroying brain cells.''  When
   police and teachers read this and believe it, our job gets
   really tough, since it takes a long time to explain to
   children how Ms. Jones and Officer Bob were wrong.)

   The truth is, no study has ever demonstrated cellular
   damage, stupidity, mental impairment, or insanity brought on
   specifically by marijuana use -- even heavy marijuana use.
   This is not to say that it cannot be abused, however.





3b) If it doesn't kill brain cells, how does it get you `high'?

   Killing brain cells is not a pre-requisite for getting
   `high.'  Marijuana contains a chemical which substitutes for
   a natural brain chemical, with a few differences.  This
   chemical touches special `buttons' on brain cells called
   `receptors.'  Essentially, marijuana `tickles' brain cells.
   The legal drug alcohol also tickles brain cells, but it will
   damage and kill them by producing toxins (poisons) and
   sometimes mini-seizures.  Also, some drugs will wear out the
   buttons which they push, but marijuana does not.





4) Don't people die from smoking pot?

   Nobody has ever overdosed.  For any given substance,
   there are bound to be some people who have allergic
   reactions.  With marijuana this is extremely rare, but it
   could happen with anything from apples to pop-tarts.  Not
   one death has ever been directly linked to marijuana itself.
   In contrast, many legal drugs cause hundreds to hundreds of
   thousands of deaths per year, foremost among them are
   alcohol, nicotine, valium, aspirin, and caffiene.  The
   biggest danger with marijuana is that it is illegal, and
   someone may mix it with another drug like PCP.

   Marijuana is so safe that it would be almost impossible to
   overdose on it.  Doctors determine how safe a drug is by
   measuring how much it takes to kill a person (they call this
   the LD50) and comparing it to the amount of the drug which
   is usually taken (ED50).  This makes marijuana hundreds of
   times safer than alcohol, tobacco, or caffiene.  According
   to a DEA Judge ``marijuana is the safest therapeutically
   active substance known to mankind.''





5) I forgot, does marijuana cause short-term memory impairment?

   The effect of marijuana on memory is its most dramatic
   and the easiest to notice.  Many inexperienced marijuana
   users find that they have very strange, sudden and
   unexpected memory lapses.  These usually take the form of
   completely forgetting what you were talking about when you
   were right in the middle of saying something important.
   However, these symptoms only occur while a person is `high'.
   They do not carry over or become permanent, and examinations
   of extremely heavy users has not shown any memory or
   thinking problems.  More experienced marijuana users seem to
   be able to remember about as well as they do when they are
   not `high.'

   Studies which have claimed to show short-term memory
   impairment have not stood up to scrutiny and have not been
   duplicated.  Newer studies show that marijuana does not
   impair simple, real-world memory processes.  Marijuana does
   slow reaction time slightly, and this effect has sometimes
   been misconstrued as a memory problem.  To put things in
   perspective, one group of researchers made a control group
   hold their breath, like marijuana smokers do.  Marijuana
   itself only produced about twice as many effects on test
   scores as breath holding.  Many people use marijuana to
   study.  Other people cannot, for some reason, use marijuana
   and do anything that involves deep thought.  Nobody knows
   what makes the difference.




6a) Is marijuana going to make my boyfriend go psycho?

   Marijuana does not `cause' psychosis.  Psychotic people
   can smoke marijuana and have an episode, but there is
   nothing in marijuana that actually initiates or increases
   these episodes.  Of course, if any mentally ill person is
   given marijuana for the first time or without their
   knowledge, they might get scared and `freak.'  Persons who
   suffer from severe psychological disorders often use
   marijuana as a way of coping.  Because of this, some
   researchers have assumed that marijuana is the cause of
   these problems, when it is actually a symptom.  If you have
   heard that marijuana makes people go crazy, this is probably
   why.





6b) Don't users of marijuana withdraw from society?

   To some extent, yes.  That's probably just because they
   are afraid of being arrested, though.  The same situation
   exists with socially maladjusted persons as does with the
   mentally ill.  Emotionally troubled individuals find
   marijuana to be soothing, and so they tend to use it more
   than your average person.  Treatment specialists see this,
   and assume that the marijuana is causing the problem.  This
   is a mistake which hurts the patient, because their doctors
   will pay less attention to their actual needs, and
   concentrate on ending their drug habit.  Sometimes the
   cannabis is even helping them to recover.  Cannabis can be
   abused, and it can make these situations worse, but
   psychologists should approach marijuana use with an open
   mind or they risk hurting their patient.

   Marijuana itself does not make normal people anti-social.
   In fact, a large psychological study of teenagers found that
   casual marijuana users are more well adjusted than `drug
   free' people.  This would be very amusing, but it is a
   serious problem.  There are children who have emotional
   problems which keep them from participating in healthy,
   explorative behavior.  They need psychological help but
   instead they are skipped over.  Marijuana users who do not
   need help are having treatment forced on them, and in the
   mean-time marijuana takes the blame for the personality
   characteristics and problems of the people who like to use
   it improperly.





7) Is it true that marijuana makes you lazy and unmotivated?

   Not if you are a responsible adult, it doesn't.  Ask the
   U.S. Army.  They did a study and showed no effect.  If this
   were true, why would many Eastern cultures, and Jamaicans,
   use marijuana to help them work harder?  `Amotivational
   syndrome' started as a media myth based on the racial
   stereotype of a lazy Mexican borracho.  The prohibitionists
   claimed that marijuana made people worthless and sluggish.
   Since then, however, it has been scientifically researched,
   and a symptom resembling amotivational syndrome has actually
   been found.  However, it only occurs in adolescent teenagers
   -- adults are not affected.

   When a person reaches adolescence, their willingness to work
   usually increases, but this does not happen for teenagers
   using marijuana regularly -- even just on the weekends.  The
   actual studies involved monkeys, not humans, and the results
   are not verified, but older studies which tried to show
   `amotivational syndrome' usually only suceeded when they
   studied adolescents.  Adults are not effected.

   The symptoms are not permanent, and motivation returns to
   normal levels several months after marijuana smoking stops.
   However, a small number of people may be unusually sensitive
   to this effect.  One of the monkeys in the experiment was
   severely amotivated and did not recover.  Doctors will need
   to study this more before they know why.





8) Isn't marijuana a gateway drug?
  Doesn't it lead to use of harder drugs?

   This is totally untrue.  In fact, researchers are looking
   into using marijuana to help crack addicts to quit.  There
   are 40 million people in this country (U.S.) who have smoked
   marijuana for a period of their lives -- why aren't there
   tens of millions of heroin users, then?  In Amsterdam, both
   marijuana use and heroin use went *down* after marijuana was
   decriminalized -- even though there was a short rise in
   cannabis use right after decriminalization.  Unlike
   addictive drugs, marijuana causes almost no tolerance.  Some
   people even report a reverse tolerance.  That is, the longer
   they have used the less marijuana they need to get `high.'
   So users of marijuana do not usually get bored and `look for
   something more powerful'.  If anything, marijuana keeps
   people from doing harder drugs.

   The idea that using marijuana will lead you to use heroin or
   speed is called the `gateway theory' or the `stepping stone
   hypothesis.'  It has been a favorite trick of the anti-drug
   propaganda artists, because it casts marijuana as something
   insidious with hidden dangers and pitfalls.  There have
   never been any real statistics to back this idea up, but
   somehow it was the single biggest thing which the newspapers
   yelled about during Reefer Madness II.  (Perhaps this was
   because the CIA was looking for someone to blame for the
   increase in heroin use after Viet Nam.)

   The gateway theory of drug use is no longer generally
   accepted by the medical community.  Prohibitionists used to
   point at numbers which showed that a large percentage of the
   hard drug users `started with marijuana.'  They had it
   backwards -- many hard drug users also use marijuana.  There
   are two reasons for this.  One is that marijuana can be used
   to `take the edge off' the effects of some hard drugs.  The
   other is a recently discovered fact of adolescent psychology
   -- there is a personality type which uses drugs, basically
   because drugs are exciting and dangerous, a thrill.

   On sociological grounds, another sort of gateway theory has
   been argued which claims that marijuana is the source of the
   drug subculture and leads to other drugs through that
   culture.  By the same token this is untrue -- marijuana does
   not create the drug subculture, the drug subculture uses
   marijuana.  There are many marijuana users who are not a
   part of the subculture.

   This brings up another example of how marijuana legalization
   could actually reduce the use of illicit drugs.  Even though
   there is no magical `stepping stone' effect, people who
   choose to buy marijuana often buy from dealers who deal in
   many different illegal drugs.  This means that they have
   access to illegal drugs, and might decide to try them out.
   In this case it is the laws which lead to hard drug use.  If
   marijuana were legal, the drug markets would be separated,
   and less people would start using the illegal drugs.  Maybe
   this is why emergency room admissions for hard drugs have
   gone down in the states that decriminalized marijuana during
   the 70's.





9a) I don't want children (minors) to be able to smoke marijuana.
   How can I stop this?

   Legalize it.  They can smoke it now; it is about as easy
   to get as alcohol.  There would be less marijuana being sold
   in schools, playgrounds, and street corners, though, if it
   was sold legally through pharmacies -- because the dealers
   would not be able to compete with the prices.  If you are a
   parent, the choice is really up to you: Do you want your
   children to sneak off with their friends and use marijuana
   which they bought off the street, or do you want to talk to
   them calmly and explain to them why they should wait until
   they are older?  Your children are not going to walk up to
   you and tell you that they use an illegal drug, but if it
   was not such a big deal they might give you a chance to
   explain your feelings.  Besides, would you rather children
   use speed, cocaine, and alcohol?

   Consider, also, that children have a natural urge to do
   things that they aren't supposed to.  It is called
   curiosity.  By making such a fuss over marijuana, you make
   it interesting (some call it the `forbidden fruit' factor.)
   This is made worse when children are lied to about drugs by
   teachers and police -- they lose respect for the school and
   the government.  In a lot of ways, it is the hysteria about
   drugs which causes the most harm.  When marijuana users do
   none of the horrible things they are supposed to, children
   may think that other more harmful drugs are OK, too.  Your
   children will not respect you unless you are calm and give
   good reasons for your rules.  The first step is for you, the
   parent, to learn the facts about drugs.





9b) Won't children be able to steal marijuana plants that
   people are growing?

   Well, if you are worried about them stealing the hemp
   plants from the paper-pulp farm down the road, you should
   know that the commercial grades of hemp do not contain much
   THC (the stuff that gets you high.)  If they were to smoke
   it, they would probably just get a headache.  Otherwise, it
   should be the responsibility of the grower to take measures
   to prevent this.  Most ``home-grown'' marijuana is
   cultivated indoors anyway.  If the children in your town
   have nothing better to do than go around stealing marijuana
   to smoke, your town needs to buy a library or something.





10a) Hey, don't you know that marijuana drops testosterone
    levels in teenage boys causing [various physical and
    developmental problems]?

   Marijuana does not turn young healthy boys into lanky,
   girlish looking wimps, no.  This scare tactic (call it
   homo-phobic if you will) was a common device used in early
   anti-drug literature.  It attempts to scare boys away from
   marijuana by telling them, essentially, that it will turn
   them into a girl.  Young men probably should not use
   marijuana heavily (see the section on amotivational
   syndrome), but the risks are not horrendous.

   Anti-marijuana pamphlets used this claim often during Reefer
   Madness II, but the studies which are cited are mostly
   faulty or misinterpreted.  This is not to say that marijuana
   use does not affect childhood development at all, just that
   the effects are not as drastic as some people would like
   them to sound.  In fact they are pretty much unknown.





10b) Doesn't heavy marijuana use lower the sperm count in males?

   Not by much, (if at all) and this can be a good thing.
   It does not make you impotent or sterile.  (If it did --
   there would be no Rastafarians left!)  Give those testicles
   a rest, already!  Marijuana is certainly _not_ birth
   control, please don't let your lover tell you it is.

   Many people think that marijuana enhances their sex lives.
   It is not an aphrodisiac, that is, it does not make people
   want to have sex.  What it does do for some people is make
   everything more sensual -- it makes food taste better and
   feelings and emotions more vivid.





10c) I heard marijuana use by teenage girls may impair hormone
    production, menstrual cycles, and fertility.  Is this true?

   Also unproven and unfounded, but there is no data
   available to tell either way, (and it won't be coming from
   the U.S. -- current U.S.  laws prohibit research on women.)
   This is the female version of the boy's ``It'll turn you
   into a sissy'' tactic.  As far as anyone knows, it is only a
   scare tactic.





11) I forgot, does marijuana cause short-term memory impairment?

   Go away.





12) Isn't smoking marijuana worse for you than smoking cigarettes?

   There are many reasons why it is not.  You may have heard
   that ``one joint is equal to ten cigarrettes'' but this is
   exagerrated and misleading.  Marijuana does contain more tar
   than tobacco -- but low tar cigarettes cause just as much
   cancer, so what is that supposed to mean?  Scientists have
   shown that smoking any plant is bad for your lungs, because
   it increases the number of `lesions' in your small airways.
   This usually does not threaten your life, but there is a
   chance it will lead to infections.  Marijuana users who are
   worried about this can find less harmful ways of taking
   marijuana like eating or vaporizing.  (Be careful --
   marijuana is safe to eat -- but tobacco is not, you might
   overdose!)  Marijuana does not seem to cause cancer the way
   tobacco does, though.

   Here is a list of interesting facts about marijuana smoking
   and tobacco smoking:

   o   Marijuana smokers generally don't chain smoke, and
       so they smoke less.  (Marijuana is not physically
       addictive like tobacco.)  The more potent marijuana
       is, the less a smoker will use at a time.

   o   Tobacco contains nicotine, and marijuana doesn't.
       Nicotine may harden the arteries and may be
       responsible for much of the heart disease caused by
       tobacco.  New research has found that it may also
       cause a lot of the cancer in tobacco smokers and
       people who live or work where tobacco is smoked.
       This is because it breaks down into a cancer causing
       chemical called `N Nitrosamine' when it is burned
       (and maybe even while it is inside the body as well.)

   o   Marijuana contains THC.  THC is a bronchial dilator,
       which means it works like a cough drop and opens up
       your lungs, which aids clearance of smoke and dirt.
       Nicotine does just the opposite; it makes your lungs
       bunch up and makes it harder to cough anything up.

   o   There are benefits from marijuana (besides bronchial
       dilation) that you don't get from tobacco.  Mainly,
       marijuana makes you relax, which improves your health
       and well-being.

   o   Scientists do not really know what it is that causes
       malignant lung cancer in tobacco.  Many think it may
       be a substance known as Lead 210.  Of course, there
       are many other theories as to what does cause cancer,
       but if this is true, it is easy to see why NO CASE OF
       LUNG CANCER RESULTING FROM MARIJUANA USE ALONE HAS
       EVER BEEN DOCUMENTED, because tobacco contains much
       more of this substance than marijuana.

   o   Marijuana laws make it harder to use marijuana
       without damaging your body.  Water-pipes are illegal
       in many states.  Filtered cigarettes, vaporizers, and
       inhalers have to be mass produced, which is hard to
       arrange `underground.'  People don't eat marijuana
       often because you need more to get as high that way,
       and it isn't cheap or easy to get (which is the
       reason why some people will stoop to smoking leaves.)
       This may sound funny to you -- but the more legal
       marijuana gets, the safer it is.

                  -------------------------

   It is pretty obvious to users that marijuana prohibition
   laws are not ``for their own good.''  In addition to the
   above, legal marijuana would be clean and free from
   adulturants.  Some people add other drugs to marijuana
   before they sell it.  Some people spray room freshener on it
   or soak in in chemicals like formaldehyde!  A lot of the
   marijuana is grown outdoors, where it may be sprayed with
   pesticides or contaminated with dangerous fungi.  If the
   government really cared about our health, they would form an
   agency which would make sure only quality marijuana was
   sold.  This would be cheaper than keeping it illegal, and it
   would keep people from getting hurt and going to the
   emergency room.




13) Don't children born to pot-smoking mothers suffer from
   ``Fetal Marijuana Syndrome?''

   If a fetal cannabis syndrome exists, cases are so rare
   that it cannot be demonstrated.  Many mothers use marijuana
   during pregnancy -- it controls the nausea called `morning
   sickness' and many say it actually increases the appetite
   and reduces stress.  This is especially important in less
   developed countries, where modern medical care is not as
   easily available, but even so, the benefits of responsible
   marijuana use may outweigh the risks even under modern
   medicine.

   Studies conducted in Jamiaca have shown that mothers who
   smoke marijuana have healthier children, but this may be due
   to the extra income generated by marijuana dealing and other
   factors.  It has been a common ploy in the War on Drugs to
   claim that marijuana, and especially cocaine, causes birth
   defects or behavior problems like alcohol does.  This scares
   caring mothers into thinking drugs are `evil.'  The claims
   are not based on valid scientific research -- many of them
   do not even consider the life-style or living conditions of
   the mothers before pointing at drugs with the blame.

   Obviously, pregnant mothers should not smoke as much pot as
   they possibly can.  If marijuana is abused, it may hurt the
   health of both mother and child.  Delta-9-THC does cross the
   placenta and enter the fetus.  Oddly, though, the marijuana
   metabolite, 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-THC does not, and the
   fetus does not break delta-9-THC down into 11-nor like the
   mother's body does, so unborn children are not exposed to
   11-nor.  The third trimester is the time when the child is
   most vulnerable.  Parents should bear these facts in mind
   when they make decisions about using cannabis.





14) Doesn't marijuana cause a lot of automobile accidents?

   Not really.  The marijuana using public has the same or
   lower rate of automobile accidents as the general public.
   Studies of marijuana smoking while driving showed that it
   does affect reaction time, but not nearly as much as
   alcohol.  Also, those who drive `stoned' have been shown to
   be less foolish on the road (they demonstrate `increased
   risk aversion'.)  Recent studies have emphasized that
   alcohol is the major problem on our highways, and that
   illicit drugs do not even come close to being as dangerous.

   As funny as it may seem, you may be safer driving `stoned',
   as long as you aren't `totally blasted' and seeing things --
   but few users are irresponsible enough to drive in this
   state of mind, anyway.  Still, many people have reported
   making mistakes while driving because they were stoned.

   There are those who think that marijuana is a major problem
   on the streets, because of a newspaper article or news story
   which they have seen which said a large number of people who
   were killed in driving accidents tested postive for
   marijuana use.  For various reasons, these studies are not
   reliable:

   o   Some studies use drug tests which can only tell
       whether a person has used marijuana in the last
       month.

   o   Some studies were done near colleges or other areas
       where drinking, marijuana use, and accidents are all
       very high, and they did not correct for age or
       alcohol use.

   o   In many of the studies there were more stoned drivers
       killed -- but it was not their fault, and when the
       police ``culpability scores'' were factored in
       marijuana was not to blame for the accidents.





15) Aren't you afraid everyone will get hooked?

   Marijuana produces no withdrawal symptoms no matter how
   heavy it is used.  It is habit forming (psychologically
   addictive), but not physically addictive.  The majority of
   people who quit marijuana don't even have to think twice
   about it.  Comparing marijuana to addictive drugs is really
   quite silly.

   For a drug to be physically addictive, it must be
   reinforcing, produce withdrawal symptoms, and produce
   tolerance.  Marijuana is reinforcing, because it feels good,
   but it does not do the other two things.  Caffeine, nicotine
   and alcohol are all physically addictive.





16a) Is urine testing for marijuana use as a terms of
    employment a good idea?
    I want to make sure my business is run safely.

   No!  Some of your most brilliant, hard working, and
   reliable employees are marijuana users.  When you drug test,
   you put all marijuana users in the same place as the abusers
   -- the unemployment line.  Drug testing is bad for business.
   (Not to mention it is an invasion of privacy.)  If a worker
   has a drug problem, you can tell by testing how well he does
   his job.  Firing *all* the drug users who work for you will
   hurt your business, costs money, and will get people very
   mad at you -- and for what?  There isn't even any hard
   evidence that marijuana users have more accidents or health
   problems.

   Your employees will probably resent being drug tested; drug
   testing allows an employer to govern the actions of an
   employee in his off time -- even when these actions do not
   effect his job performance.  (As told above, marijuana drug
   tests do not test whether a person is `high'.  They test
   whether or not they have used in the last few weeks.)
   Asking employees to urinate in a plastic cup every month is
   not a good way to make them feel like part of the business,
   or make friends, either.  There is growing concern about
   drug tests, sometimes because they misfire and accuse the
   wrong person, but mostly because they might be used to find
   out other confidential information about an employee.  Legal
   professionals are beginning to question whether they are
   even constitutional.





16b) Isn't all this worth the trouble, though, in order to
    reduce accident risks and health care costs?

   Everyone knows that marijuana users are bad employees,
   right?  Wrong -- or at least someone forgot to tell the
   millions of hard working marijuana smokers that.  Drug
   testing companies will hand you piles of statistics which
   they say prove marijuana use costs you money.  The truth is
   there are just as many studies which show that marijuana
   users are more successful, use less health care, and produce
   more than non-users.  Before you buy into workplace drug
   testing, make sure you get the other side of the story.

   In the 1980's, the Bush administration went to great lengths
   to promote drug testing.  In fact, George Bush estimated the
   cost of drug use at over 60 billion dollars a year, based on
   a study which supposedly showed that persons who had used
   marijuana at some time during their life were less
   successful.  The very same study could be used to show that
   current, heavy users of marijuana and other illegal drugs
   were actually more successful.  Something is a bit fishy
   here, and when you add to that the fact that several former
   heads of the DEA and former Drug Czars now own or work in
   the urinalysis industry, this whole scene begins to smell a
   bit funny.





17) Wouldn't it be best to just lock the users all up?

   How do you plan to pay for that?  Already, well over five
   percent of the people in this country (U.S) are in custody
   (including probation, parole, bail, etc.)  Murderers and
   rapists are being let out of our penatentiaries right now to
   make room for a few more `deadheads' -- there are about
   2,500 Grateful Dead fans in our federal prisons.
   Imprisoning one person for one year costs about $20,000.
   The United States leads the world in imprisonment -- at any
   one time, 425 people out of every 100,000 are behind bars.
   In the Federal Prison System, one fifth of the prisoners are
   drug offenders who have done nothing violent.  State laws
   are usually less strict, but state mandatory minumum
   sentences for drugs are getting more popular.

   Our prisons and our courtrooms are so crowded that the
   American Bar Association's annual report on the state of the
   Justice System is basically one long plea for an end to drug
   laws that imprison users.  Even the Clinton Administration
   recognizes that locking people up is not the solution.  This
   is especially true for the people who actually have drug
   abuse problems -- they need treatment, not mistreatment.
   The Drug War put mandatory minimum jail sentences for drug
   crimes on the lawbooks.  If we do not take those laws (at
   least) back off, we will be in sorry shape come the end of
   the century.  A retroactive policy of marijuana legalization
   or decriminalization would go a long way in helping to solve
   this crisis.

   Also consider this -- Once a person gets put in jail, he
   becomes angry with the world.  He will probably be
   victimized while he is there, and most likely will learn
   criminal behaviors from hard-core violent offenders.  There
   is also a very good chance that he will have caught AIDS or
   tuberculosis by the time he gets let back out.  By locking
   up drug users, you are digging yourself a very big trench to
   fall in -- is it worth it?

   Besides, lots of these people don't deserve to be in jail.
   Why should they serve time just because they like to get
   `high' on marijuana?  Especially when someone can drink
   alcohol without being arrested...  what kind of law is that?
   You have to think about what kind of a world you are making
   for yourself before you act.  How are the police of the
   future going to treat the people?  How far are you willing
   to let the government go to get the drug users?  How many of
   your own rights will you sacrifice by trying to jail `the
   druggies'?





18) I heard that there are over 400 chemicals in marijuana...
   Wellllll...?

   True, but so what?  There are also over 400 chemicals in
   many foods, (including coffee, which contains over 800
   chemicals and many rat carcinogens) and we don't see police
   arresting people in McDonald's, or giving Driving while
   Eating citations.  Only THC is very psycho-active; a few
   other chemicals also have very small degrees of
   psycho-activity.  People who use marijuana do not get sick
   more, or die earlier, or lose their jobs (except to drug
   tests), or have mutant kids...  so what's your point?

   The fact that there are over 60 unique chemicals in
   cannabis, called `cannabinoids,' is something that
   scientists find very interesting.  Many of these
   cannabinoids may have valuable effects as medicine.  For
   example, `cannabinol' is a cannabinoid which can help people
   with insomnia.  Doctors think that this chemical is why most
   patients prefer to use marijuana rather than pure
   Delta-9-THC pills (called dronabinol) -- the cannabinol
   takes the edge off being `high' and calms the nerves.
   Another cannabinoid, `cannabidiolic acid', is a very
   effective anti-biotic, like pennicillin.  Many of these
   chemicals can be extracted from marijuana without any fancy
   laboratory equipment.





19) Doesn't that stuff mess up your immune system and make
   it easier for you catch colds?

   Marijuana (Delta-nine-THC) does have an `immunosuppressive
   effect.'  It acts on certain cells in the liver, called
   macrophages, in much the same way that it acts on brain
   cells.  Instead of stimulating the cells, though, it shuts
   them off.  This effect is temporary (just like the `high')
   and goes away quickly; people who suffer from multiple
   sclerosis may actually find this effect useful in fighting
   the disease.

   Recent research has also found that marijuana metabolites
   are left over in the lungs for up to seven months after the
   smoking has stopped.  While they are there, the immune
   system of the lungs may be affected (but the macrophages do
   not get ``turned off'' like in the liver.)  The effects of
   smoking itself are probably worse than the effects of the
   THC, and last just as long.

   All this said, doctors still have not decided whether
   marijuana users are at risk for colds or not.  With the
   possible exception of bronchitis, there are no numbers which
   suggest that marijuana users catch more colds, but... this
   did not stop Carlton Turner, a United States Drug Czar, from
   saying many times in his public addresses that marijuana
   caused AIDS and homosexuality.  His claims were so ridiculus
   that the Washington Post and Newsweek Magazine made fun of
   him, and he was forced to resign.

   Today, AIDS patients use marijuana to treat their symptoms
   without any aparrent problems.  Some studies suggest that
   marijuana may actually stimulate certain forms of immunity.
   Researchers have tried to show major effects on the healthy
   human's immune system, but if marijuana does have any
   substantial effects, good or bad, they are either too
   subtle or too small to notice.


                --------------------------
                P  A  R  T      F  O  U  R
                --------------------------


                 WHY IS IT STILL ILLEGAL?


1) Why is it STILL illegal?:

   The official answer: Because you shouldn't use it.
   You can't use it because it is illegal, and it is illegal so
   you can't use it.  You should not use it.  It is illegal.
   It is illegal so you should not use it.

   The manic-depressive answer: It'll never happen.  People are
   too unorganized/stupid/disempowered.  It's just futility.
   Try, but don't expect to get anywhere.  I won't get my hopes
   up.

   The paranoid-schizophrenic answer: Don't you SEE?!?!?  The
   guys at the top have it SEWN!!  They own everything.
   They'll never let it happen.  I shouldn't even be talking to
   you, but let me give you some advice!!  listen...  you
   shouldn't mess with THEM, THEY know everything.  THEY are
   practically psychic, see?  And the only way to get it to
   happen is to become one of THEM.  You'd better watch it, or
   THEY will come and take you away -- THEY do that, you know.
   It's all a CONSPIRACY!!!

   The neurotic answer: Marijuana?  Eeek!  Don't you know that
   stuff is dangerous?  People don't make laws for no good
   reason, you know!  Where did you hear about marijuana?
   Wait!  Don't tell me, I don't want to know.  If anybody even
   knew you thought it should be legal -- well -- they'd never
   talk to you again!  Don't you know that marijuana this...
   marijuana that...  ...  ...  ...

   THE REAL ANSWER: Marijuana is still illegal because enough
   people have not yet stood up together and said:

        `` THIS IS STUPID!!

                I WANT CANNABIS HEMP LEGAL!!!

                      FOR PRODUCTS;

                             FOR MEDICINE;

                                    FOR FOOD;

                                           FOR FUN;

   FOR GOODNESS'S SAKE!  ISN'T THAT WHAT LIFE'S ALL ABOUT ?!''

   Without large-scale grass roots support, marijuana will
   never be legal.  Every person that stands up for
   marijuana/hemp legalization makes us that much stronger, and
   our voices that much louder.  Believe me, we appreciate all
   the support we get.  Almost as importantly, it makes it that
   much harder for people to say ``that's a stupid idea'' or
   ``nobody really believes that.''

   If you aren't convinced yet, Or if you are having trouble
   swallowing any of the answers given,  I encourage you to
   learn more about the issues.  Try the sources listed at the end.

   If you're with us, let us know!  Let everybody know, unless
   it will get you canned or arrested, but most importantly,
   keep an eye on what's going on, and try to lend a hand when
   you can.  Also, know your stuff, so if you have to, you can
   convince a friend or loved one that *you* are not nuts --
   the rest of the world is.





2)  What can I do to bring some sense into our marijuana laws?

   There are many things you can do.  Activists are
   working right now at all levels to reform marijuana laws.
   If you cannot afford to be an activist, there are many ways
   you can help -- activists find themselves short of money,
   time, and occasionally even friendly company.  Get to know a
   hemp or marijuana legalization activists in your area, and
   just keep up to date on what they are planning.  Odds are
   you will find something that you can easily do which will
   help them out a whole lot.  There is a list available called
   the Liberty Activist's List which will give you the phone
   numbers or address of groups near you.  Also, you may call
   the National Office of NORML (The National Organization for
   the Reform of Marijuana Laws) at 1-202-483-5500.  The most
   important thing you can do on your own, though, is to keep
   tabs on your state and local legislators, and let them know
   that this is an issue to be taken seriously.

   Many activist groups offer `memberships.'  These usually
   involve a fee for joining the group, and a newsletter that
   keeps you up to date on the group's activities.  This way
   you know when and why to write your legislators, and thought
   provoking information which you normally would not get is
   delivered to you.  If and when you need to, most
   importantly, you will be able to contact the group and seek
   or give advice.

3a)  Where can I get more information?

   Many places.  One of the best is by using electronic
   communications.  The Information Superhighway has been a
   tremendous leap forwards for our movement, and there is a
   lot of information available.  Start by sending e-mail to
   "([{readme]})<verdant@twain.ucs.umass.edu>".  There is an
   e-mail file-server set up at this address, and just about
   anyone with Internet e-mail can use it.  The server contains
   many files about marijuana, and more importantly directories
   and pointers on how to get more information by WWW, GOPHER,
   FTP, IRC, and TELNET.  For a overview list of these
   resources send mail to
   "([{netlinks]})<verdant@twain.ucs.umass.edu>".  If you
   have trouble making this work, send a note asking for help
   to "verdant@twain.ucs.umass.edu"

   A copy of the Liberty Activist's List is also available
   through this server, by mailing to
   "([{groups]})<verdant@twain.ucs.umass.edu>."  This will
   help you get in touch with activists near you.  If you are
   interested, there is an excellent mailing list devoted to
   Drug War issues.  It is called DRCnet and you may send mail
   to "borden@netcom.com" for information on becoming involved.





3b) Umm, I'm computer illiterate, so that just went way over
   my head.  Are there any good books I could go get instead?

   Here is a list of some of the must-read books and
   articles about marijuana and legalization.  Check the
   source section of this FAQ for more information about
   these and other sources.

   ``The Emperor Wears No Clothes'' by Jack Herer pub. Queen of
   Clubs/HEMP, 1993/1994

   ``Hemp, Life-Line to the Future'' by Chris Conrad pub. data
   pending

   ``Marihuana Reconsidered'' by Lester Grinspoon pub. 1977.
   Harvard University Press.  pub. 1993 data pending.

   ``Marihuana the Forbidden Medicine'' by Lester Grinspoon
   pub. Yale University Press 1993.

    *** Journal Articles of General Interest ***

   ``Marijuana Laws: A Need for Reform'' by Roger Allan Glasgow
   in ``Arkansas Law Review'' Vol. 22(340) pp. 359-375.

    *** Government commissions recommending legalization ***

   The Panama Canal Zone Report of 1925, pub.  United States
   Government.

   Mayor LaGuardia's Committee on Marijuana (New York) Report
   issued 1944. (Initiated 1938 -- an extensive study of
   marijuana) pub. New York City Government

   The Final Report of the Le Dain Commission on Marijuana
   Legalization, pub. Canadian Gov't

   Final Report if the National Commission on Marijuana, 1972,
   pub. United States Government  entitled ``Marijuana -- a
   Signal of Misunderstanding''

    *** Court Rulings ***

   ``In the Matter of Marijuana Rescheduling Petition'' by Hon.
   Francis L. Young Docket# 86-22 1989.



4)  Do you have any advice for people who want to organize
   their own group?

   There are some very good books that will help new
   organizers hit the ground running.  Here are two titles you
   should try to locate:

   Si Kahn ``Organizing: A Guide For Grassroots Leaders''
   McGraw-Hill 1982 0-07-033215-0 (0-07-033199-5 paperback)

   Ed Hedemann ``The War Resisters League Organizers Manual''
   1981 0-940862-00-X
                                    The War Resisters League
                           339 Lafayeyette St., New York, NY


                 -------------------------
                 P  A  R  T     F  I  V  E
                 -------------------------

                 SOURCES BY QUESTION NUMBER




(Sorry for the pathetic bibliography.  As soon as time and software
permits it will be cleaned up, cross referenced, and expanded.)

1a) What Is Hemp?


``Hemp'' by Lyster H. Dewey pp. 283-346. pub. United States Department
of Agriculture, 1913.


``The Emperor Wears No Clothes: The Authoritative Historical Record of
the Cannabis Plant, Marijuana Prohibition, & How Hemp Can Still Save
the World'' by Jack Herer pub. Queen of Clubs HEMP Publishing, 1993.


``The Marijuana Farmers'' by Jack Frazier pub. Solar Age Press New
Orleans, 1972.


1b) What is cannabis?


``Hemp, Life-line to the Future'' by Chris Conrad pub data pending.



(Mexican slang term)


``The Emperor Wears No Clothes The Authoritative Historical Record of
the Cannabis Plant, Marijuana Prohibition, & How Hemp Can Still Save
the World'' by Jack Herer pub. Queen of Clubs HEMP Publishing, 1993.


(hemp can be grown legally)


``Hemp, Life-line to the Future'' by Chris Conrad pub data pending.


John Birrenbach's legal hemp FAQ pub. Institute for Hemp 1993.


(number one cash crop)


``Drugs, Crime and the Justice System'' pub.  United States Government
Printing Office Washington, DC.  December, 1992.


``Information Please Almanac'' pub. Simon and Schuster New York, 1993.


2a) How can hemp be used as a food?


(protien)


A. J. St. Angelo, E. J. Conkerton, J. M. Dechary, A. M. Altschul in
``Biochimica et Biophysica Acta'' Vol. 121 pp. 181. 1966.


A. J. St. Angelo, L. Y. Yatsu, A. M. Altschul in ``Archives of
Biochemistry and Biophysics'' Vol. 124 pp. 199-205. 1966.


``Chromatography of Edestine at 50 Degrees'' by D. M. Stockwell, J. M.
Dechary, A. M. Altschul in ``Biochimica et Biophysica Acta'' Vol. 82
pp. 221. 1964.


(essential fatty acid oils)


``Fats that Heal, Fats that Kill'' by Udo Erasmus pub.


``Hemp-seed Oil Compared with Other Common Vegetable Oils'' by Gerald
X. Diamond in ``Cannabis Hemp Information Kit'' pub.


``Therapeutic Hemp Oil'' by Andrew Weil M.D. in ``Natural Health''
March/April, 1993.


2b) What are the benefits of hemp compared to other food crops?


``Hemp'' by Lyster H. Dewey pp. 283-346. pub. United States Department
of Agriculture, 1913.


``The Emperor Wears No Clothes: The Authoritative Historical Record of
the Cannabis Plant, Marijuana Prohibition, & How Hemp Can Still Save
the World'' by Jack Herer pub. Queen of Clubs HEMP Publishing, 1993.


2c) How about soy?  Is hemp competitive as a world source of protein?


(hemp vs. soy)


``Hemp'' by Lyster H. Dewey pp. 283-346. pub. United States Department
of Agriculture, 1913.


``Chromatography of Edestine at 50 Degrees'' by D. M. Stockwell, J. M.
Dechary, A. M. Altschul in ``Biochimica et Biophysica Acta'' Vol. 82
pp. 221. ed. pub., 1964.


(resistance to UV-B sunlight)


``UV-B Effects on Terrestrial Plants'' by Manfred Tevinie, Alan H.
Teremura in ``Photochemistry and Photobiology'' Vol. 50 Iss. 4 pp.
479-487. pub. Pergamon Press Oxford, New York, 1989.


(agricultural consequences of drug policy in underdeveloped nations)


cites pending


3a) How can hemp be used for cloth?


``Hemp, Flax, Jute, Ramie, Kenaf and Other Industrial Fibers a
Comparison of Properties and Applications '' by Gerald X. Diamond in
``Cannabis Hemp Information Kit'' pub Washington Citizens for Drug
Policy Reform.


``Hemp'' by Lyster H. Dewey pp. 283-346. pub. United States Department
of Agriculture, 1913.


``The Emperor Wears No Clothes The Authoritative Historical Record of
the Cannabis Plant, Marijuana Prohibition, & How Hemp Can Still Save
the World'' by Jack Herer pub. Queen of Clubs HEMP Publishing, 1993.


``The Marijuana Farmers'' by Jack Frazier pub. Solar Age Press New
Orleans, 1972.


3b) Why is it better than cotton?


``Hemp, Flax, Jute, Ramie, Kenaf and Other Industrial Fibers a
Comparison of Properties and Applications '' by Gerald X. Diamond in
``Cannabis Hemp Information Kit'' pub. Washington Citizens for Drug
Policy Reform.


4a) How can hemp be used to make paper?


``It's Time to Reconsider Hemp'' by Jim Young in ``Pulp & Paper'' pp.
7. June, 1991.


``Hemp Variations as Pulp Source Researched in the Netherlands'' by E.
P. M. de Meijer in ``Pulp & Paper'' pp. 41-42. July, 1993.


``The Manufacture of Paper from Hemp Hurds'' by Jason L. Merril in
``USDA Bulletin/Yearbook of the United States Department of
Agriculture'' Iss. 404 pp. 7-25. pub. United States Department of
Agriculture


4b) Why can't we just keep using trees?


``The Production and Handling of Hemp Hurds'' by Lyster H. Dewey in
"USDA Bulletin" Iss. 404 pp. 1-6. pub.  United States Department of
Agriculture.


``Hemp'' by Lyster H. Dewey pp. 283-346. pub. United States Department
of Agriculture, 1913.


5a) How can hemp be used as a fuel?


``Farming For Fuel]'' by Folke Dovring pub data pending.


``Pretreatment Research Overview'' by K. Grohmann, R. Torget, M.
Himmel in ``The DOE SERI Ethanol From Biomass Program'' pub. The
United States Department of Energy.


``Overview: The DOE SERI Ethanol From Biomass Program '' by C. E.
Wyman pub. The United States Department of Energy.


5b) Why is it better than petroleum?


``Towards a Green Economy'' by Lynn Osburn (pamphlet)


other cites pending


6a) How can hemp be used as a medicine?


``Marijuana, The Forbidden Medicine'' by Lester Grinspoon M.D. and
James B. Bakalar pub. Yale University Press New Haven, 1993.


``Therapeutic Issues of Marijuana and THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)'' by
J. Thomas Ungerieder, Therese Andrysiak in ``The International Journal
of the Addictions'' Vol. 20 pp. 691-699. ed. pub. M. Dekker New York,
1985.


6b) What's wrong with all the prescription drugs we have?


``Marijuana, The Forbidden Medicine'' by Lester Grinspoon M.D. and
James B. Bakalar pub. Yale University Press New Haven, 1993.


7) What other uses for hemp are there?


``The Emperor Wears No Clothes The Authoritative Historical Record of
the Cannabis Plant, Marijuana Prohibition, & How Hemp Can Still Save
the World'' by Jack Herer pub. Queen of Clubs HEMP Publishing, 1993.

Note: 93/94 edition of the Emperor only.





            WELL WHY AREN'T WE USING HEMP, THEN?


1) How and why was hemp made illegal?


``Drugs and minority oppression'' by John Helmer pub. Seabury Press
New York, 1975.


``The Emperor Wears No Clothes The Authoritative Historical Record of
the Cannabis Plant, Marijuana Prohibition, & How Hemp Can Still Save
the World'' by Jack Herer pub. Queen of Clubs HEMP Publishing, 1993.


2) OK, so what the heck does all this other stuff...


``The Manufacture of Paper from Hemp Hurds'' by Jason L. Merril in
``USDA Bulletin/Yearbook of the United States Department of
Agriculture'' Iss. 404 pp. 7-25. pub. United States Department of
Agriculture


``New Billion-Dollar Crop'' in ``Popular Mechanics'' February, 1938.


``Flax and Hemp From the Seed to the Loom '' by George A. Lower in
``Mechanical Engineering'' February, 1937.


3) Now wait, just hold on.  You expect me to believe....


``Hemp, Life-line to the Future'' by Chris Conrad pub data pending.


``The Emperor Wears No Clothes The Authoritative Historical Record of
the Cannabis Plant, Marijuana Prohibition, & How Hemp Can Still Save
the World'' by Jack Herer pub. Queen of Clubs HEMP Publishing, 1993.


``New Billion-Dollar Crop'' in ``Popular Mechanics'' pub. February,
1938.


``Flax and Hemp From the Seed to the Loom '' by George A. Lower in
``Mechanical Engineering'' February, 1937.


4) Is there a lesson to be learned from all this?


``Manufacturing Consent'' by Noam Chomsky pub data pending.


``Marijuana Laws: A Need for Reform'' by Roger Allan Glasgow in
``Arkansas Law review'' Vol. 22 Iss. 340 pp. 359-375.


                  DOES IT?  DOESN'T IT?  IS IT TRUE?


1) Doesn't marijuana stay in your fat cells and keep you high ...


``Marijuana Chemistry Genetics, Processing, and Potency'' by Michael
Starks pub. Ronin Inc., 1990.


``Marijuana Cannabinoids Neurobiology and Neurophysiology'' ed. Laura
Murphy, Andrzej Bartke ed. pub. CRC Press Boca Raton, FL, 1992.


2) But ... isn't today's marijuana much more potent than it was...


``Cannabis 1988. Old Drug, New Dangers The Potency Debate '' by Todd
H. Mikuriya M.D., Michael R. Aldrich Ph.D. in ``Journal of
Psychoactive Drugs'' Vol. 20 Iss. 1 pp. 47-55 pub. Haight-Ashbury
Publications in association with the Haight-Ashbury Free Medical
Clinic San Francisco, Calif. : January March, 1988.


3a) Doesn't Marijuana cause brain damage?


``The Chronic Cerebral Effects of Cannabis Use I Methodological Issues
and Neurological Findings '' by Renee C. Wert Ph.D., Michael L. Raulin
Ph.D Vol. 21 Iss. 6 pp. 605-628. 1986.


``The Chronic Cerebral Effects of Cannabis Use II Psychological
Findings and Conclusions '' by Renee C. Wert Ph.D., Michael L. Raulin
Ph.D Vol. 21 Iss. 6 pp. 629-642. 1986.


``Neurotoxicity of Cannabis and THC A Review of Chronic Exposure
Studies in Animals '' by Andrew C. Scallet in ``Pharmacology,
Biochemistry & Behavior'' Vol. 40 pp. 671-676. 1991.


``Chronic Marijuana Smoke Exposure in the Rhesus Monkey IV
Neurochemical Effects and Comparison to Acute and Chronic Exposure to
Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in Rats'' by Syed F. Ali, Glenn D.
Newport, Andrew C. Scallet, Merle G. Paule, John R. Bailey, William
Slikker Jr in ``Pharmacology, Biochemistry & Behavior'' Vol. 40 pp.
677-682. 1991.


``Behavioral, Neurochemical, and Neurohistological Effects of Chronic
Marijuana Smoke Exposure in the Nonhuman Primate'' by William Slikker
Jr. et al. in ``Marijuana Cannabinoids Neurobiology and
Neurophysiology'' Laura Murphy, Andrzej Bartke ed. pub. CRC Press Boca
Raton, FL, 1992.


(the following are the studies which were found to be flawed)


``Effects of Cannabis Sativa on Ultrastructure of the Synapse in
Monkey Brain'' by J. W. Harper, R. G. Heath, W. A. Myers in ``Journal
of Neuroscience Research'' Vol. 3 pp. 87-93. 1977.


``Chronic Marihuana Smoking Its Effects on Function and Structure of
the Primate Brain '' by R. G. Heath, A. T. Fitzjarrell, R. E. Garey,
W. A. Myers in ``Marihuana: Biological Effects Analysis, Metabolism,
Cellular Responses, Reproduction and Brain '' Gabriel G. Nahas, W. D.
M. Paton ed. pub. Pergamon Press Oxford, 1979.


``Cannabis Sativa Effects on Brain Function and Ultrastructure in
Rhesus Monkeys '' by R. G. Heath, A. T. Fitzjarrell, C. J. Fontana, R.
E. Garey in ``Biological Psychiatry'' Vol. 15 pp. 657-690. 1980.


(D.A.R.E. says pot kills brain cells)


DARE Officers training manual section T page 5.


3b) If it doesn't kill brain cells....


``Structure of a Cannabinoid Receptor'' by L. A. Matsuda , S. J.
Lolait , M. J. Browstein, A. C. Young, T. I. Bonner in ``Nature'' Vol.
346 Iss. 6824 pp. 561-564. August, 1990.


(marijuana does not wear out it's receptors)


``Chronic Exposure to Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Fails to
Irreversibly Alter Brain Cannabinoid Receptors'' by Tracy M. Westlake,
Allyn C. Howlett, Syed F. Ali, Merle G. Paule, Andrew C. Scallet,
William Slikker Jr. in ``Brain Research'' Vol. 544 pp. 145-149. 1991.


4) Don't people die from smoking pot?


Bureau of Mortality Statistics, 1988.


``In the Matter of Marijuana Rescheduling Petition: Opinion and
Recommended Ruling, Findings of Fact, Conclusions of Law and Decision
of Administrative Law Judge Francis L. Young '' by Hon. Francis L.
Young September, 1988.


(allerigic reaction is rare)


``Marijuana and Immunity'' by Leo E. Hollister M.D. in ``Journal of
Psychoactive Drugs'' Vol. 24 Iss. 2 pp. 159-164. pub. Haight-Ashbury
Publications in association with the Haight-Ashbury Free Medical
Clinic San Francisco, Calif. : April,June, 1992.


5) I forgot, does marijuana cause short-term memory impairment?


cites pending


6a) Is marijuana going to make my boyfriend go psycho?


``A Brief, Critical Look at Cannabis Psychosis'' by Amit Basu in ``The
International Journal on Drug Policy'' Vol. 3 pp. 126-127. 1992.


6b) Don't users of marijuana withdraw from society?


``Adolescent Drug Use and Psychological Health'' by Jonathan Shedler,
Jack Block in ``American Psychologist'' Vol. 45 Iss. 5 pp. 612-630.


``Substance Use and Abuse Among Teenagers'' by Michael D. Newcomb,
Peter M. Bentler in ``American Psychologist'' Vol. 44 Iss. 2 pp.
242-248. 1989.


``Cognitive Motivations for Drug Use Among Adolescents Longitudinal
Tests of Gender Differences and Predictors of Change in Drug Use '' by
Michael D. Newcomb, Chih Ping Chou, P. M. Bentler, G. J. Huba in
``Journal of Counseling Psychology'' Vol. 35 Iss. 4 pp. 426-438. pub.
American Psychological Association Washington,DC, 1988.


``Personality Characteristics of Adolescent Marijuana Users'' by John
E. Mayer, Jeffrey D. Ligman in ``Adolescence'' Vol. 24 Iss. 96 pp.
965-976. 1989.


``Cannabis Use and Sensation Seeking Orientation'' by K. Paul
Satinder, Alexander Black in ``The Journal of Psychology'' Vol. 166
pp. 101-105. pub. Journal Press Provincetown, MA, 1984.


7) Is it true that marijuana makes you lazy and unmotivated?


``Behavioral and Biological Concomitants of Chronic Marijuana Use'' by
Dr. Jack H. Mendelson 1974.  (US Army study)


(adolescent amotivational-like syndrome)


``Chronic Marijuana Smoke Exposure in the Rhesus Monkey II Effects on
Progressive Ratio and Conditioned Position Responding '' by Merle G.
Paule, Richard R. Allen, John R. Bailey, Andrew C. Scallet, Syed F.
Ali, Roger M. Brown, William Slikker Jr. in ``The Journal of
Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.'' Vol. 260 pp. 210-222.
ed. pub.


``Up in Smoke Arkansas Study Raises Doubts About Marijuana Risks '' by
Mara Leveritt in ``Arkansas Times'' pp. 11-12. September 16, 1993.


(use of marijuana and other drugs in a positive role in work)


``Working Men and Ganja Marijuana Use in Rural Jamaica Melanie Creagan
Dreher '' by Melanie Creagan Dreher pub. Institute for the Study of
Human Issues Philadelphia, 1982.


``The working addict David Caplovitz '' by David Caplovitz pub. M. E.
Sharpe, White Plains, NY, 1976.


8) Isn't marijuana a gateway drug?  Doesn't it lead to use of ...


``Who Says Marijuana Use Leads to Heroin Addiction?'' by Jerry Mandel
in ``Journal of Secondary Education'' Vol.  43 Iss.  5 pp.  211-217.
pub. California Association of Secondary School Administrators
Burlingame, CA May


``Marihuana reconsidered Lester Grinspoon. '' by Lester Grinspoon M.D.
1928- pub. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1977.


(emergency room admissions)


cites pending


9a) I don't want children (minors) to be able to smoke ...


(a good book about drugs for parents and children)


``From Chocolate To Morphine'' by Andrew Weil pub. data pending
(a new edition will be coming out very soon!)


9b) Won't children be able to steal marijuana plants that people...


(industrial hemp has very low THC content)


``Hemp Variations as Pulp Source Researched in the Netherlands'' by E.
P. M. de Meijer in ``Pulp & Paper'' pp. 41-42. pub. July, 1993.


10a) Hey, don't you know that marijuana drops testosterone levels...


``Behavioral, Neurochemical, and Neurohistological Effects of Chronic
Marijuana Smoke Exposure in the Nonhuman Primate'' by William Slikker
Jr. et al. in ``Marijuana Cannabinoids Neurobiology and
Neurophysiology'' pp. . Laura Murphy, Andrzej Bartke ed. pub. CRC
Press Boca Raton, FL, 1992.


10b) Doesn't heavy marijuana use lower the sperm count in males?


``Marihuana A Signal of Misunderstanding '' pub. U.S. Government
Printing Office Washington, 1972.


10c) I heard marijuana use by teenage girls may impair hormone...


``Marihuana A Signal of Misunderstanding '' pub. U.S. Government
Printing Office Washington, 1972.


11) I forgot, does marijuana cause short-term memory impairment?


Go away.


12) Isn't smoking marijuana worse for you than smoking cigarettes?


(more tar in smoked marijuana, but claims exaggerated)


``Pulmonary Hazards of Smoking Marijuana as Compared with Tobacco'' by
Tzu Chin Wu, Donald P. Tashkin , Behnam Djahed , Jed E. Rose in ``New
England Journal of Medicine'' Vol. 318 Iss. 6 pp. 347-351. pub., 1988.


(low-tar cigarettes just as carcinogenic)


``The Association of Lung Cancer with Tar Content of Cigarettes'' by
Franz P. Reichsman pub., 1980. (Thesis)


(lung damage from smoking)


``Marijuana Exposure and Pulmonary Alterations in Primates'' by
Suzanne E. G. Fligiel, Ted F. Beals, Donald P. Tashkin, Merle G.
Paule, Andrew C. Scallet, Syed F. Ali, John R. Bailey, William Slikker
Jr. in ``Pharmacology, Biochemistry & Behavior'' Vol. 40 Iss. 3 pp.
637-642. ed. pub., 1991.


``Chronic Marijuana Smoke Alters Alveolar Macrophage Morphology and
Protein Expression'' by Guy A. Cabral, Amy L. Stinnet, John Bailey,
Syed F. Ali, Merle G. Paul, Andrew C. Scallet, William Slikker Jr. in
``Physiology, Biochemistry and Behavior'' Vol. 40 pp. 643-649. ed.
pub., 1991.


(Lead 210 and N Nitrosamines in tobacco)


Joseph DiFranza in NEJM Vol. 306 Iss. 6 pub. February, 1982. and
responses in Vol. 307 Iss. 5 pub. July, 1982.


13) Don't children born to pot-smoking mothers suffer from Fetal .....


``Effects of Prenatal Exposure to Cannabinoids'' by Ernest L. Abel in
``CurrentReasearch on the Consequences of Maternal Drug Abuse''
Theodore M. Pinkert ed. NIDA Research monograph # 59


``The Effects of Early Marijuana Exposure'' by Ernest L. Abel, Gary A.
Rockwood, Edward P. Riley in ``Handbook of teratology'' pp. 267-288.


(Jamaican studies)


``Prenatal Marijuana Exposure and Neonatal Outcomes in Jamaica An
Ethnographic Study '' by Melanie C. Dreher , Kevin Nugent, Rebekah
Hudgins in ``Pediatrics'' Vol. 93 Iss. 2 pp. 254-260. pub. February,
1994.


(THC fetal exposure)


``Placental Transfer and Fetal Disposition of
Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) During Late Pregnancy in the Rhesus
Monkey'' by William Slikker Jr, H. C. Cunny, J. R. Bailey, M. G. Paule
in ``'' pp. 97-102.


``The Influence of Anesthesia, Pregnancy, and Sex on the Plasma
Disposition of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and
11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in the Rhesus Monkey''
by Merle G. Paule, John R. Bailey, William Slikker Jr. in ``'' pp.
315-320. ed. pub.


14) Doesn't marijuana cause a lot of automobile accidents?


NHTSA statistical study pub. 1992, data pending

NHTSA Amsterdam study pub. 1994, data pending

Australian statistical survey pub 1993, data pending


15) Aren't you afraid everyone will get hooked?


``Behavioral, Neurochemical, and Neurohistological Effects of Chronic
Marijuana Smoke Exposure in the Nonhuman Primate'' by William Slikker
Jr. et al. in ``Marijuana Cannabinoids Neurobiology and
Neurophysiology'' Laura Murphy, Andrzej Bartke ed. pub. CRC Press Boca
Raton, FL, 1992.


``Marihuana A Signal of Misunderstanding '' pub. U.S. Government
Printing Office Washington, 1972.


``The Marijuana Problem in the City of New York'' (Mayor Laguardia's
Commission on Marijuana.  The text of the decision can be found in a
three volume set entitled ``The Marijuana Papers'') more pub. data
pending.


``Marihuana reconsidered Lester Grinspoon.'' by Lester Grinspoon M.D.
1928- pub. Harvard University Press Cambridge, MA, 1977.


16a) Is urine testing for marijuana use as a terms of employment...


``Applicant Testing For Drug Use A Policy and Legal Inquiry '' by
Jonathan V. Holtzman in ``William and Mary Law Review'' Vol. 33 pp.
47-93. pub., 1991.


16b) Isn't all this worth the trouble, though, in order to reduce...


``Social Behavior, Public Policy, and Non-harmful Drug Use'' by
Charles Winick in ``The Milbank Quarterly'' Vol. 69 Iss. 3 pp.
437-459. ed. published for the Milbank Memorial Fund Cambridge
University Press New York, NY, 1991.


other cites pending (mail the faq maintainor)


17) Wouldn't it be best to just lock the users all up?


``Drugs, Crime and the Justice System'' pub.  United States Government
Printing Office Washington, DC December, 1992.


``The State of Criminal Justice, an annual report'' by the American
Bar Association, 1993 pub. U.S. Government Printing office.


``Social Behavior, Public Policy, and Non-harmful Drug Use'' by
Charles Winick in ``The Milbank Quarterly'' Vol. 69 Iss. 3 pp.
437-459. pub. published for the Milbank Memorial Fund Cambridge
University Press New York, NY, 1991.


18) I heard that there are over 400 chemicals in marijuana...


(800 chemicals in coffee)


``Too Many Rodent Carcinogens Mitogenesis Increases Mutagenesis '' by
B. N. Ames, L. S. Gold in ``Science'' Vol. 149 pp. 971. ed. pub.,
1990.


(other cannabinoids)


``Marijuana Chemistry Genetics, Processing, and Potency '' by Michael
Starks pub. Ronin Inc., 1990.


``Marijuana, The Forbidden Medicine'' by Lester Grinspoon M.D. and
James B. Bakalar pub. Yale University Press New Haven, 1993.


19) Doesn't that stuff mess up your immune system...


(liver macrophages)


``Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol A Novel Treatment for Experimental
Autoimmune Encephalitis '' by W. D. Lyman , J. R. Sonett , C. F.
Brosnan , R. Elkin , M. B. Bornstein in ``Journal of Neuroimmunology''
Vol. 23 pp. 73-81. 1989.


(lung macrophages and other cells)


``Chronic Marijuana Smoke Alters Alveolar Macrophage Morphology and
Protein Expression'' by Guy A. Cabral, Amy L. Stinnet, John Bailey,
Syed F. Ali, Merle G. Paul, Andrew C. Scallet, William Slikker Jr,
1991.


(general overview)


``Marijuana and Immunity'' by Leo E. Hollister M.D. in ``Journal of
Psychoactive Drugs'' Vol. 24 Iss. 2 pp. 159-164.  pub. Haight-Ashbury
Publications in association with the Haight-Ashbury Free Medical
Clinic San Francisco, Calif. : April,June, 1992.


(Carlton Turner)


``Official Corruption Carton Turner'' by Jack HererJack Herer in ``The
Emperor Wears No Clothes The Authoritative Historical Record of the
Cannabis Plant, Marijuana Prohibition, & How Hemp Can Still Save the
World'' pub. Queen of Clubs HEMP Publishing, 1993.





                  -----------------------
                  P  A  R  T      S  I  X
                  -----------------------

                   ABOUT THE ALT.HEMP FAQ

   This section is for people who want to know more about the
   FAQ itself, and for those who want to be a part of
   maintaining and distributing this document.  First we will
   start with a Version History of the alt.hemp FAQ:

               --------------------------------

   Versions 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 -- These are incomplete versions
   which were used to test the waters and draw discussion.
   Please replace them with a more current version if you run
   across them anywhere.

   Version 0.3LaTeX -- So far, this is the only typeset version
   of the FAQ.

   Version 1.0 -- This is the first completed version of the
   FAQ.

   Version 1.0m -- This is the first completed mini-FAQ for
   alt.hemp.  It is meant for small BBS's and FIDONET where
   file sizes must be small.


              -----------------------------------

   Future Versions:

   The text of the FAQ is now pretty much stable.  New
   questions may be added and any mistakes corrected.  Work on
   the text will concentrate on fleshing out the resource and
   sources section, providing more cites, especially pointers
   to on-line textfiles and information.

   Work has started on a German hemp FAQ, and true patriots of
   other countries are encouraged to translate and/or rewrite
   the FAQ and to research marijuana prohibition's history in
   their own countries.  Future versions supporting various
   forms of hypertext are in the works, as well as print-ready
   and FAX-ready formats.  There is a mailing list for
   coordination of this and other activities.  Please contact
   verdant@twain.ucs.umass.edu if you have questions,
   suggestions, comments, requests, or offers of help.  We
   are looking for people with either lots of spare time, or
   knowlege of SGML, LaTeX, HTML, MIME, as well as other
   hypertext or word-processing software.


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